Canonical URL: ; File formats: Plain Text PDF Discuss this RFC: Send questions or comments to [email protected] The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a computer networking communications protocol which operates at the transport layer and serves a role similar to the popular protocols TCP and UDP. It is standardized by IETF in RFC RFC (part 6 of 7): Stream Control Transmission Protocol.

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SCTP is a general-purpose, unicast, bidirectional, connection-oriented and datagram-oriented Transport Layer protocol. So, SCTP itself is not a very new protocol any more.

However, research on extensions for SCTP is still very actively ongoing. Currently, there are multiple extensions in the discussion within the IETF.

At some time in the future, the finished extensions should also be published as RFCs. Click itf for full size! Probably one of the most interesting features of SCTP is its ability to support multi-homing. Then, in case of a failure within some of the networks, an SCTP connection can still keep active unless all networks stop working.

RFC – part 6 of 7

This so-called multi-homing feature is particularly necessary for redundancy; it has there been a requirement of the original telephone signalling use case. That is, SCTP selects one of the available paths for data transmission the so-called primary path. The other paths remains as backups and are only used for retransmissions or in case of a failure on the primary path.

However, multi-path transfer becomes very tempting to improve payload throughput when there are actually links to multiple ISPs available and paid, of course! The main challenges of efficient multi-path transfer are to work with heterogeneous paths e.

For specific details on the protocol and its extensions, have a look at the RFCs and various Internet Drafts in the Standardisation section. The complete BibTeX references in a single file can be found here! This paper seeks to discover the relationship of buffer size with throughput and congestion control algorithms, based on the statistical predictive modelling method.

In spite of rapid growth of the implementations of MPTCP, the theoretical and fundamental question —- how large the buffer size of MPTCP should be to meet the network traffic -— remains unaddressed, although there were graphic illustrations and descriptive discussions about it. However, nowadays, applications are beginning to directly set the DSCP themselves, in the hope that this will yield a more appropriate service for their respective video, audio and data streams. WebRTC is a prime example of such an application.

Our study is based on end-to-end measurements from IPv4 and 65 IPv6 geographically spread controlled probe clients to 34 IPv4 and 18 IPv6 servers respectively. Clearly, when the DSCP value is changed, the net result may not be what the application desired.

It is a result of lessons learned from more than one decade of SCTP deployment. However, mainly one path is used for data transmission. Only timer-based retransmissions are carried over other paths as well. This document describes how multiple paths can be used simultaneously for transmitting user messages. This facilitates porting existing applications to use a subset of NEAT’s functionality. In former times, it was necessary to operate and maintain powerful personal computers to run applications.

Nowadays, many “normal” users just use laptops, tablet PCs or rrc. Their applications are powered by cloud systems in the background, which are operated in data centres at remote locations and being connected over the Internet.

RFC – Stream Control Transmission Protocol

This presentation first introduces the basics of cloud computing: A challenge of using cloud computing is to deploy services to cloud providers, in order to operate them in a cost-efficient way while providing the best application experience to the users. Furthermore, it provides the user with an easy-to-use, unified cloud environment, which hides the complexity of a multi-cloud.

This talk gives a short overview over the possibilities of testing applications in the NorNet infrastructure. The goal of NEAT A New, Evolutive API and Transport-Layer Architecture for the Internet is to allow network “services” offered to applications — such as reliability, low-delay communication or security — to be dynamically tailored based on application demands, current network conditions, hardware capabilities or local policies, and also to support the integration of new network functionality in an evolutionary fashion, without applications having to be rewritten.


This talk gives a practical introduction to NEAT from a developer’s perspective: This is followed by pseudo-code examples and finally running-code examples. Since the first deployments of this protocol more than 30 years ago, the spectrum of applications as well as the structure of the network have developed at a fast pace.

For example, today’s network devices, like smartphones and laptops — i. The addresses may even change due to mobility.

This property, denoted as multi-homing, can be utilised for multi-path transport, i. It particularly shows the sequence of research and selected results, beginning from a simple simulation model, via lab setups and small Internet scenarios, up to the large-scale, international testbed project NorNet.

NorNet, and particularly its landline network part NorNet Core, is furthermore described in some detail.

Particularly, it will also show how the NorNet testbed can be utilised for research at Hainan University. There is a growing concern that the Internet transport layer has become ossified in the face of emerging novel applications, and that further evolution has become very difficult.

The NEAT system is a novel and evolvable transport system that decouples applications from the underlying transport layer and network services. In so doing, it facilitates dynamic transport selection. This demo shows how the NEAT system is able to dynamically select the most appropriate transport solution for the Mozilla Firefox web browser.

With the rapid development of Internet communications, there is a growing demand to support devices being connected to multiple Internet service providers simultaneously. This multi-homing property can be used for resilience, but there is also an increasing interest in making use of concurrent multi-path transport.

That is, multiple network paths can be utilised simultaneously, in order to improve the payload throughput for applications like big data or cloud computing. However, systems in such challenging setups need proper configuration. Therefore, we particularly would like to highlight the performance impact of different path management and congestion control settings in such realistic scenarios.

Of course, having multiple and possibly highly dissimilar paths for transmission is a challenge for the management of the send and receive buffers, since optimal throughput is desired with a reasonable allocation of the limited memory resources in MPTCP endpoints.

The experiment shows that multi-path transmission can effectively increase the application payload throughput, and greatly improve the robustness of the data transmission. As an important point of this paper, we can show that appropriate buffer size settings can increase the payload throughput, while not wasting resources. This paper has certain significance for further accurately determining the optimal buffer size settings for multi-path transmission in large-scale Internet setups.

In order to evaluate the performance of multi-path transport protocols, a straightforward initial step is to perform simulations. This tutorial — presented for Ph. Multi-homing denotes the simultaneous connection of endpoints e.

That is, the endpoints remain reachable even when some of the ISPs have problems e. Besides the redundancy aspect, multi-homing can also make load sharing by multi-path transport possible, i. Multi-path transport can e. The growing need for and deployment of multi-homed applications makes large-scale testing and evaluation in realistic Internet setups necessary. For instance, different paths can have very different characteristics with regard to bandwidth, packet loss rate, congestion, delay and jitter.

Therefore, the NorNet project of the Simula Research Laboratory is building up an open platform for such experiments: It provides programmable nodes with multiple ISP connections — wired as well as wireless — that are distributed all over Norway as well as some international locations.

Particularly, it will also show how the NorNet Core testbed can be utilised for research at the University of Sydney. NorNet is an open, international Internet testbed platform for research on multi-homed systems. The global distribution creates further challenges.


Goal of this talk is therefore to provide an overview of the problems that occurred when building the testbed, as well as solutions and lessons learned from solving these challenges. The idea is to present guidelines for utilising the advanced Linux features in own projects. This paper assesses whether multi-path communication can help latency-sensitive applications to satisfy the requirements of their users.

To ensure the validity of our evaluation, several experimental approaches were used including simulation, emulation and live experiments.

When paths are symmetric in terms of capacity, delay and loss rate, we find that the experienced latency is significantly reduced, compared to using a single path.

Using multiple asymmetric paths does not affect latency — applications do not experience any increase or decrease, but might benefit from other advantages of multi-path communication. In the light of our conclusions, multi-path transport is suitable for latency-sensitive traffic and mature enough to be widely deployed.

Stream Control Transmission Protocol

This talk will give an overview over NorNet. Its coupled congestion control intends to reap the ieft bandwidth of multiple links, while avoiding to be more aggressive than regular TCP flows on every used link. We argue that this leads to a very conservative behavior when ietc do not share a bottleneck.

Therefore, in this paper, we first quantify the penalty of the coupled congestion control for the links that do not share a bottleneck. We complement the emulation results with real-network experiments justifying it is safeness for deployment.

Multi-path transport has become a hot topic in Internet protocol research with the evolution of emerging technologies, rf with the market penetration of access terminals having multiple network interfaces e. Then, it examines three test scenarios in the NorNet testbed, particularly highlighting the performance difference between using uncoupled and coupled congestion controls in multi-homed, real-world Internet setups. A common problem for evaluating multiple transport protocols in a multi-platform environment is to have a test tool that is capable iet run in all these environments, and — of course — to support all necessary protocols.

Using different evaluation tools is not a good solution, since each tool may introduce its own — and possibly incompatible — parametrisation scheme. This blog article provides an iehf to NetPerfMeter. Awarded with the Best Paper Award. However, there is nowadays also a growing demand for transmitting big amounts of data in the background, namely background transport that uses spare capacity, but with minimal effect on other traffic.

While LEDBAT works in some cases, there are however known situations where it causes serious performance problems, particularly in combination with the ubiquitous bufferbloat for example in current broadband networks. Inspired by an astronomical event, we have named this approach Eclipse. Unlike LEDBAT, Eclipse can dynamically adapt to the network characteristics not only to minimise the additional network delay but also to maximise the utilisation of spare network capacity.

We will show the usefulness of Eclipse by simulations. Our results show that MPTCP, even with a single dual-stack Internet connection, can significantly improve the end-to-end performance when the underlying paths are non-congruent. The extent of the improvement can reach up to the aggregate of the IPv4 and IPv6 bandwidth. NorNet Core is the world’s first, open, large-scale Internet testbed for multi-homed systems and applications. 460, it is currently used for research ieetf topics like multi-path transport and resilience.

Clearly, a key feature of this testbed is to work in the real-world Internet. That is, it is especially desired to expose experiments to real Internet behaviour like background itf. However, for the researcher, it is necessary to actually know rrc paths — being used for an experiment — actually behave: