Fung Ju-Lan – Istorija kineske – Free ebook download as PDF File . pdf) or view presentation slides online. (RS); Bookseller Inventory #: A; Title: ISTORIJA KINESKE FILOZOFIJE; Author: FUNG JU-LAN; Format/binding:Paperback; Book condition: As New. Title, Istorija kineske filozofije. Volume 29 of Biblioteka Sazvežđa. Author, Fung Yu-Lan. Edition, 2. Publisher, Nolit, Length, pages. Export Citation.
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The second pessimistic response related to human nature starts from the premises that evil is in the essence of man.
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As a supplement to this theory is fikozofije thesis of the Chinese philosopher Hsyn Chu5F that human nature is malicious and it has to be cultivated in order to acquire the category of goodness. He endeavours to prove that man is born with the innate tendency towards gaining something and has a preference for sensual pleasures. But beside these inceptions of evil, man simultaneously possesses intelligence, which enables kinese to become good. According to Hsyn Chu, moral relations are a product of culture and civilisation.
They are not gifts of nature but an achievement of the spirit. Hence, moral laws are again set as something objective, something given from outside. Hobbes realised that three principal motifs lead to such a state of affairs: The first reason, after him, leads people to attack other people for profit, the second for security, and the third for gaining reputation. For the purpose of substantiating his viewpoint on human nature, he quotes the facts of the historical experience from long time ago but also from recent time.
ISTORIJA KINESKE FILOZOFIJE by FUNG JU-LAN – Paperback – – from Knjizara and
He gave as an example the behaviour of primitive peoples in many regions in America or the modern civil wars, which present what human nature is like at places where there is no joined ruling power kinekse install fear.
Those who are close to man are not only helpers and sexual objects but also objects that serve to satisfy aggression, use their work, and inflict pain upon them. Hobbes and Freud believed that human nature exists, i. This would mean that the human kind is not morally filozoije, but by nature necessarily immoral and malicious.
From this point of view, culture is not a sum of forms among which the values of the non-defined biological accoutrement of man is patterned, but a corpus of repressive measures for taming the natural fillozofije in man. Several variants of this dismal view on the world can be found in the speculations of socio-philosophers from19 century, Max Stirner and Friedrich Nietzsche.
They are both in favour of the thesis that every human being fights for his good, without taking care of the welfare of the other members in the society. As maintained by them, altruism is an illusion or a temporary state when people are faced with a common enemy. The relations between people are based on the collective apprehension and hatred, and not on love and friendship.
Strife is interwoven in human nature, whose stems are placed deep in the past and it results in survival of those who are most perseverant. This theory is even nowadays approved in the works of some modern philosophers, among which the most famous is Ein Rend.
The only point of contact among all the above-mentioned theories as Nikola Milosevic9F emphasised in his article Disputes on Human Nature is the denial of human freedom. And it is a constituent element of human nature. All these cases are dealing with a radical deterministic attitude towards human nature.
In some of the theories the role of determinants is taken by cultural forms, and in others by the elements of biological factors. The third significant historic attempt for solving the problem of human nature is in the form of a distinctive anthropological optimism. The problem of morality was considered by the oldest philosophy acts. Just the reverse, man attains wisdom by maturing. Menzie stated that there are good elements in human nature but he is aware of the existence of neutral elements, which if uncontrolled can lead to evil.
The elements that can become evil are instincts, typical of animals, and he believes they are not part of human nature. According to him, every man possesses four elements intrinsic to human nature.
These are the feeling of sympathy, which is the origin of all human philanthropy and altruism, the feeling of shame and disgust, which is the beginning of righteousness, and the feeling of righteousness, which is the start of wisdom characterised by modesty and compliance.
This perspective was dominant in Ancient Greece as well. In this sense morality is immanent to man, comes from him, and is an expression of his nature. Plato11F defines morality as a harmonious functioning of all elements of human personality i.
Morality is a product of human nature itself. It is a result of the mutual links between the crucial parts of human nature, reason, spirit and wish. Hence, a good man is the one whose reason governs his wishes, whereas with the evil man, wishes govern reason. Plato, Aristotle, and Ancient Greeks in general found two important filozofihe of morality in human nature.
They are the wish as a biological component, and reason as a specifically human component. They always positioned reason beyond wishes and passions. Also they identified morality with the control of reason over wishes. For this attempt of interpretation, the theoretical opus of Erich From is paradigmatic.
In truth, in some of his articles he tended to mollify his optimistic notion of human nature, defending himself from sentimental optimism and recognising the potential of evil in man. He said that man is neither filozogije nor evil. The Origin Genesis of The Morality The second pessimistic response related to human nature starts from the premises that evil is in the essence of man. LiteratureReviewsBlesok no.